This Week in Little Bighorn History

Philipp Spinner died at Camp Douglas, Wisconsin, on August 12, 1895, and was buried in the Fort Sheridan Cemetery in Highwood, Illinois. He was a Private in Company B who participated in the valley and hilltop fights at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

White Swan (left) died on the Crow Agency in Montana on August 12, 1904, and was buried in the Custer National Cemetery there. He was an Indian Scout who participated in the valley and hilltop fights where he was wounded.

Thomas Hughes, who was also known as Charlie Hughes, died on August 12, 1911, in Nashville, Tennessee, and was buried in the Nashville National Cemetery there. He was a Private in Company H who was wounded in the hilltop fight.

Roman Rutten (who was also known as Roman Ruttenauer, Rutler, Rullin, and Bolten) was born on August 13, 1846, in Baden, Germany. He was a Private in Company M who fought in the valley and hilltop fights. He was wounded on Reno Hill.

Morris Cain died in Colville, Washington, on August 13, 1906. He was a Private in Company M who fought in the valley and hilltop fights.

Thomas Carmody died of cancer on August 13, 1912, in New York City. He was a Private in Company B who was with the pack train and participated in the hilltop fight.

Fred E. Allan, who was also known as Alfred Ernest Allen, was born in Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire, England, on August 14, 1847. He was a Private in Company C who was killed while fighting with Custer’s column.

Charles H. Houghtaling died on August 14, 1881, at Fort Lewis, Colorado, and was originally buried in the Post Cemetery there. He was later reinterred at the Fort McPherson National Cemetery in Maxwell, Nebraska. He was a Private in Company D who participated in the hilltop fight.

James Hill was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on August 15, 1826 or 1833. He was the First Sergeant in Company B who was with the pack train and participated in the hilltop fight.

Charles A. Windolph (left), who was also known as Charles Wrangel, married his second wife, Mathilda Lulow, on August 16, 1884, in Sturgis, Dakota Territory. He was a Private in Company H who suffered a wound during the hilltop fight for which he received the Purple Heart. He was also the recipient of the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions during the battle.

Edwin Philip Eckerson died on August 17, 1885, in Hays, Kansas, and was buried in the Mount Allen Cemetery there. He was a 2nd Lieutenant in Company L who was enroute to the battle on June 25 and 26, 1876.

Frederick Smith died on August 18, 1905. He was a Private in Company K who was not present at the battle due to detached service.

Jacob Huff died in Tilton, Illinois on August 18, 1929, and was buried in the North Grove Cemetery in Celina, Ohio. He was a Private in the band, which did not accompany the cavalry to the battle.


This Week in Little Bighorn History

James M. Rooney (left) died on August 5, 1918, in Yankton, South Dakota, and was buried in the State Hospital Cemetery there. He was a Private with Company F who was with the pack train and participated in the hilltop fight.

Henry N. B. Witt died in Santa Monica, California, on August 5, 1929. He was a Private for Company K who was not present due to detached service.

Cornelius Cowley died on August 6, 1908, in Washington, D.C., at the Government Hospital for the Insane (now St. Elizabeth’s Hospital) and may be buried in an unmarked grave in its cemetery. He was a Private in Company A who participated in the valley and hilltop fights.

Daniel Mahoney died at Barnes Hospital in Washington, D.C., on August 7, 1885, and was buried in the Soldiers’ Home National Cemetery there. He was a Private in Company M who participated in the valley and hilltop fights.

Joseph H. Green was born on August 8, 1849, in Leitrim, Ireland. He was a Private in Company D who participated in the hilltop fight.

Edmund H. Burke was born in Manchester, England, on August 10, 1842. He was a Blacksmith for Company K who participated in the hilltop fight.

Edward Davern died on August 10, 1896, in Washington, D.C., and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery in nearby Virginia. He was a Private in Company F who served as an orderly for Major Reno. He participated in the valley and hilltop fights where he was wounded.

 


This Week in Little Bighorn History

Morris Mason Farrar was born on July 30, 1846, in Amesbury, Massachusetts. He was a Private in Company E who participated in the hilltop fight.

Jacob Hetler (left) was born in Mansfield, Ohio, on August 2, 1852. He was a Private in Company D who participated in the hilltop fight and was wounded.

Alexander Downing died on August 2, 1884, in Pleasant Hill, Miami County, Ohio, and was buried in the Pleasant Hill Cemetery there. He was a Private in Company F who was not present at the battle due to detached service.

Charles W. Campbell died in Fort Bayard, New Mexico, on August 2, 1906. He was a Private in Company G who was with the pack train and was wounded in the hilltop fight.

William Earl Smith was born on August 3, 1853, on Rouses Point, New York. He was a Private in Company D who participated in the hilltop fight.

James Akers died in Washington, D.C., on August 3, 1881, and was buried in the Soldiers’ Home National Cemetery there. He was a Corporal in Company G who participated in the valley and hilltop fights.

Charles Stillman Ilsley was born on August 4, 1836, in Maine. He was a Captain for Company E who was not present due to detached service.

Thomas Murray died at the Soldiers’ Home in Washington, D.C., on August 4, 1888, and was buried in the National Cemetery there. He was a Sergeant with Company B who was with the pack train and participated in the hilltop fight where he was wounded.


This Week in Little Bighorn History

Owen Hale (left) was born on July 23, 1843, in Troy, New York. He was a Captain in Company K who was not present at the Battle of the Little Bighorn due to detached service.

Ernst Meineke died in Columbia Station, Virginia, on July 24, 1907, and was buried in the Soldiers’ Home National Cemetery in Washington, D.C. He was a Private in Company F who was not present due to detached service.

Richard A. Wallace drowned on July 25, 1876, near the mouth of the Bighorn River in Montana Territory while attempting to cross the river for picket duty. He was eventually interred in the mass grave on Last Stand Hill. He was a Private with Company B who was with the pack train and participated in the hilltop fight.

Thomas James Stowers died in Baxter, Tennessee, on July 25, 1933, and was buried in the Odd Fellows Cemetery near Baxter. He was a Private with Company B who was with the pack train and participated in the hilltop fight.

Theodore W. Goldin (left) was born on July 25, 1858, in Avon Township, Wisconsin. He was a Private with Company G who participated in the valley and hilltop fights. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroic actions during the battle.

August B. Siefert was born in Darmstadt, Germany, on July 26, 1850. He was a Private with Company K who was with the pack train and participated in the hilltop fight.

Henry Haack died on July 27, 1881, at the Asylum for the Insane in Washington, D.C., and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery, in Arlington, Virginia. He was a Private with Company H who participated in the hilltop fight.

Aloys Bohner died in Burlington, Des Moines County, Iowa, on July 27, 1887, and was buried in Aspen Grove Cemetery in Burlington. He was a Trumpeter with Company D who participated in the hilltop fight.

Jack MahoneyJohn J. “Jack” Mahoney (left) died on July 27, 1918, in Sturgis, South Dakota, and was buried in the St. Aloysius Cemetery there. He was a Private with Company C who was with the pack train and participated in the hilltop fight.

Lansing A. Moore died in Rawlins, Wyoming, on July 27, 1931, and was buried in the Rawlins Cemetery there. He was a Private with Company F who was with the pack train and participated in the hilltop fight.

William Gibbs was born on July 28, 1845, in Manchester, England. He was a Private with Company K who participated in the hilltop fight.

Morris Mason Farrar was born on July 30, 1846, in Amesbury, Massachusetts. He was a Private in Company E who participated in the hilltop fight.

 


This Week in Little Bighorn History

Thomas W. Stivers was born on July 15, 1850, in Madison County, Kentucky. He was a Private in Company D who participated in the hilltop fight and was one of the water carriers who was awarded the Medal of Honor.

John Nolan died on July 17, 1893, in Newburgh, New York. He was a Corporal in Company K who was not present at the battle due to detached service.

Edward Gustave Mathey (right) died in Denver, Colorado, on July 17, 1915, and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia. He was the First Lieutenant of Company M who commanded the pack train and participated in the hilltop fight.

Jonathan J. Callahan was born on July 18, 1853, in Salem, Massachusetts. He was a Corporal in Company K who was killed with Custer’s Column.

John B. McGuire, Jr., (left) was born in Indiana County, Pennsylvania, on July 18, 1854. He was a Private in Company C who rode with the pack train and was wounded in the hilltop fight.

Nikolaus Klein died on July 18, 1904, in Cleveland, Ohio. He was a Private in Company F who was not present at the battle due to detached service.

Daniel Alexander Kanipe (right) died in Marion, North Carolina, on July 18, 1926, and was buried in the Oak Grove Cemetery there. He was a Sergeant in Company C who was with Custer’s Column and in the hilltop fight.

John Weiss died on July 18, 1927, in Durango, Colorado, and was buried in the Greenmount Cemetery there. He was a Private in Company A who was not present at the battle due to detached service.

Richard Winick Corwine was born in Maysville, Mason County, Kentucky, on July 19, 1844. He was a Private in Company A who was not present at the battle due to detached service.

David Cooney died on July 20, 1876, at Fort Abraham Lincoln, Dakota Territory. He was original buried in the Post Cemetery there and was later reinterred in the Custer National Cemetery on the Crow Agency in Montana. He was a Private in Company I who rode with the pack train and was wounded in the hilltop fight.

William August Marshall was born in Germany on July 21, 1851. He was a Private in Company D who participated in the hilltop fight.

John A. Reed (left) died on July 21, 1897, at Fort Sisseton, South Dakota. He was originally buried in the Post Cemetery there and was later reinterred in the Custer National Cemetery on the Crow Agency in Montana. He was a Private in Company G who was in the valley and hilltop fights.

 

 

 


This Week in Little Bighorn History

James Franklin Barsantee died on July 8, 1941, in Boston, Massachusetts. He was a Private in Company B who was with the pack train and in the hilltop fight.

Daniel NewellDaniel Newell  (left) married Mary Harlow on July 9, 1882, in the Fort Meade Chapel near Sturgis, South Dakota. He was a Private in Company M who participated in the valley and hilltop fights and was wounded.

Michael Keegan died on July 10, 1900, in Chicago, Illinois. He was originally buried in an unmarked grave in the Calvary Cemetery in Evanston, Illinois, and was reinterred in the Fort Sheridan Cemetery in Highwood, Illinois, on November 11, 1999. He was a Private in Company L who was not present at the battle due to detached service.

Levi Madison Thornberry and Linnie Morris were married on July 11, 1899, in Manetta, Ohio, and they had a son, Levi Gordon Thornberry who was born in 1900. The elder Thornberry was a Private in Company M who participated in the valley and hilltop fights.

William Heyn (left) was born on July 12, 1848, in Bremen, Germany. He was a First Sergeant in Company A who participated in the valley and hilltop fights and was wounded.

Thomas Joseph CallanThomas Joseph Callan (right) was born in County Louth, Ireland, on July 12, 1853. He was a Private in Company B who was with the pack train and in the hilltop fight. He was awarded the Medal of Honor on October 24, 1898, for his actions at the Little Bighorn.

John H. Meier died on July 12, 1917, in Washougal, Clark County, Washington, and was buried in the Washougal Memorial Cemetery there. He was a Private in Company M who participated in the valley and hilltop fights and was wounded.

James Wilber Darcy died at Barnes Hospital in Washington, D.C., on July 13, 1920, and was buried three days later in the Soldiers’ Home National Cemetery there. He was a Private in Company M who participated in the valley and hilltop fights and was wounded in the left leg on June 26, 1876.

William O’Mann was born on July 14, 1849, in Hamilton County, Indiana. He was a Private in Company D who participated in the hilltop fight.

Edward Hall died in Albany, New York, on July 14, 1914. He was a Private in Company G who was not present at the battle due to detached service.


This Week in Little Bighorn History

George H. King died on July 2, 1876, in Pease Bottom, Montana Territory, where he was buried. In 1917, he was reinterred in the Custer National Cemetery on Crow Agency. He was a Corporal with Company A who who participated in the valley and hilltop fights. He was wounded in the left shoulder on the evening of June 25 and was later evacuated to the steamer Far West where he died.

Francis Johnson Kennedy (left) married Mary E. Hogan (1961-1913) on July 2, 1882. He was a Private with Company I who was with the pack train and in the hilltop fight.

John Hackett and Esther Smith were married on July 2, 1902. He was a Private in Company G who was wounded in the left arm during the valley and hilltop fights.

William W. Lasley (right) died on July 2, 1924, in Washington, D.C., and was buried in the Soldiers’ Home National Cemetery there. He was a Private with Company K who participated in the hilltop fight.

John Eaton Tourtellotte was born on July 3, 1833, in Windham, Connecticut. He was the Captain of Company G who was not present during the battle due to detached service.

William Montell George, a Private in Company K, died aboard the Far West on July 3, 1876, of wounds he received during the hilltop fight. He was buried the following day beside the Yellowstone River in Montana Territory.

Peter Orlando Barry died on July 3, 1909, in Morgan, Maryland, and was buried in the Morgan Chapel United Methodist Church Cemetery in Woodbine, Carroll County, Maryland. He was a Private in Company B who was not present at the battle due to detached service.

Thomas Mower McDougall (left) died in Brandon, Vermont, on July 3, 1909, and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia. He was a Captain commanding Company B who was with the pack train and in the hilltop fight.

Michael John Walsh died on July 3, 1932, in Newark, New Jersey. He was a Private with Company H who was not present at the battle due to confinement.

William J. Logue was born on July 4, 1841, in New York, New York. He was a Private in Company L who was with the pack train and in the hilltop fight.

George C. Morris was born in Georgetown, Delaware, on July 4, 1851. He was a Corporal with Company I who was killed with Custer’s Column.

Lansing A. Moore married Sarah Belcher on July 4, 1881, at Belcher Ranch, Custer County, Montana. He was a Private in Company F who was with the pack train and in the hilltop fight.

William J. Gregg (left) was born on July 5, 1847, in Baltimore, Maryland. He was a Private in Company F who was with the pack train and in the hilltop fight.

Walter O. Taylor was born in Scituate, Rhode Island, on July 5, 1854. He was a Blacksmith with Company G who participated in the valley and hilltop fights.

James C. Bennett died on July 5, 1876, aboard the Far West. He was a Private in Company C who was with the pack train and in the hilltop fight. He was wounded in the chest during the second day of the battle.

John Shauer died in Seattle, Washington, on July 7, 1924, and was buried in the Evergreen-Washelli Memorial Park there. He was a Private in Company K who participated in the hilltop fight.


Little Bighorn Timeline: June 26-28, 1876

Based on John S. Gray’s tables in Custer’s Last Campaign: Mitch Boyer and the Little Bighorn Reconstructed unless noted otherwise. Several people commented on this timeline when it was originally published on LittleBighorn.info; those comments are in italics.

June 26, 1876

AM

12:04: The horse herders passed Rosebud (Busby) “at midnight.” 

4:00: The rear guard passed Lame Deer Creek “at daylight.” 

4:19: The horse herders arrived at Lame Deer Creek “at daylight” and camped.

PM

5:15: The rear guard arrived at the mouth of the Rosebud “in evening” and camped. 8:00: The horse herders left their camp “at sundown.” 

Time? Interpreter Frederick Girard and Scout William Jackson (Ree, 1/4 Blackfoot) (left), who had been left in the timber, arrived at Reno Hill. 

June 27, 1876

AM

8:00: Black Fox overtook the rear guard at “8 A.M. breakfast.”
11:35: The horse herders arrived at the mouth of the Rosebud. 

PM 

5:30: The rear guard camped for the night at the Tongue River. 

7:05: The horse herders camped for the night just short of the Tongue River. 

June 28, 1876

PM 

2:00: The rear guard arrived at the Powder River base camp.
7:00: The horse herders arrived at the Powder River base camp.

 

Little Bighorn Timeline: The Evening of June 25, 1876

Based on John S. Gray’s tables in Custer’s Last Campaign: Mitch Boyer and the Little Bighorn Reconstructed unless noted otherwise. Several people commented on this timeline when it was originally published on LittleBighorn.info; those comments are in italics.

June 25, 1876

PM

5:00: Young Hawk (Ree), Forked Horn (Ree), Red Foolish Bear (Ree), and Half Yellow Face (Crow) arrived at Reno Hill after being trapped on the east bank. White Swan (Crow) and Goose (Ree) who had been wounded and trapped on the east bank arrived on Reno Hill. They met 2nd Lieutenant Charles Varnum and Major Marcus Reno (left).

5:02: The pack train met 2nd Lieutenant Luther Hare who had orders for the ammunition packs. Reno ordered Varnum to bury 2nd Lieutenant Benjamin Hodgson, but they were awaiting tools. 

5:05: Captain Thomas Weir and Company D departed Reno Hill in search of Lieutenant Colonel George Custer

5:10: Scout George Herendeen‘s party noticed that the heavy firing diminished, and they left with 12 troopers. 

5:10-12: Custer’s last heavy firing was heard on Reno Hill. 

5:12: 2nd Lieutenant Hare arrived on Reno Hill in advance of the ammunition mules. 

5:15: Reno dispatched 2nd Lieutenant Hare to the north after Weir with orders to contact Custer. 

5:19: Two ammunition mules arrived with tools. 

5:21: Varnum left to bury Hodgson. 

5:22.5: Captain Frederick Benteen (left) departed Reno Hill with Companies H, K, and M to join Weir. 

5:25: Captaini Thomas McDougall, Company B, and 1st Lieutenant Edward Mathey arrived with the packtrain. Weir’s Company D arrived at Weir Ridge and halted. Both Companies B and D saw that the Custer fight had ended. 

5:29: Herendeen’s party met Varnum’s burial party. 

5:30: The Ree horse herders left Reno Hill for the Powder River. The Ree rear guard left to join the Weir advance party. 

5:32: Herendeen’s party met the Ree rear guard on the Weir advance. 

5:32.5: Hare left Weir Ridge to report to Reno. 

5:35: George B. Herendeen, who had been left in the timber, arrived at Reno Hill. Benteen and Companies H, K, and M arrived at Weir Ridge and halted. All saw the Sioux coming to attack. 

5:35+: Herendeen interpreted for Half Yellow Face and Reno. 

5:40: Reno and his orderly left to join the Weir advance. 

5:42.5: Benteen and Company H left Weir Ridge to find Reno. Hare met and joined the Reno party. 

5:43: Varnum returned from his burial mission and joined Company A. 

5:47.5: Benteen and Company H met the Reno party and halted for 10 minutes during which time they conferred. Hare left the halt with Reno’s retreat order. The impedimenta left Reno Hill for the Weir advance. 

5:50: Hare arrived at Weir Ridge and joined Company K. Companies D, K, and M left Weir Ridge for Reno Hill. 

5:52.5: Companies A, B, G, and the pack train left to join the Weir advance. Reno, Benteen, and Company H left the halt for Reno Hill. 

5:55: The rear guard, chased by the Sioux, passed Reno Hill while heading for the Powder River. 

5:57.5: Reno, Benteen, and Company H met the impedimenta and ordered it back. 

6:00: Reno, Benteen, and Company H arrived at Reno Hill.

6:02.5: Companies D, M, A, B, G and the pack train arrived at Reno Hill.

6:10: 1st Lieutenant Edward Godfrey (left), Hare, and Company K, covering the retreat, arrived at Reno Hill and covered the rear.

6:17: The horse herders passed the lone tepee and slowed down.

6:43: The rear guard passed the lone tepee and slowed down.

7:47: The horse herders saw that the “sun touches hills.”

8:13: The rear guard was six miles beyond the lone tepee.

8:30?: The horse herders heard shots ahead and a pursuit behind them. They lost the trail. The rear guard experienced the final attack by the pursuing Sioux.

8:47: The rear guard passed the divide “before dark.”

9:00: The evening battle at Reno Hill ended at dark.

9:17: The horse herders halted to water, then crossed the divide “in dark.”

11:45: The rear guard passed the Rosebud (Busby).

To be continued. . . .

Little Bighorn Timeline: The Afternoon of June 25, 1876

Based on John S. Gray’s tables in Custer’s Last Campaign: Mitch Boyer and the Little Bighorn Reconstructed unless noted otherwise. Several people commented on this timeline when it was originally published on LittleBighorn.info; those comments are in italics.

June 25, 1876

PM 

Noon: Command passed the Crow’s Nest and crossed the Divide. There is substantial testimony that the time for this event was significantly earlier.

12:05: Command at Halt 3; General George Custer assigned the battalions. This is 2nd Lieutenant George Wallace‘s Halt 2, about 1/2 mile west of the divide. Captain Thomas McDougall (left) [in Reno Court of Inquiry: Proceedings of a Court of Inquiry in the Case of Major Marcus A. Reno (RCOI)] stated, “On June 25th, about 11 o’clock a.m., I reported to General Custer for orders. He told me to take charge of the pack train and act as rear guard.” If Wallace’s watch (itinerary) was set to Headquarters St. Paul time — and 1st Lieutenant Edward Settles Godfrey said definitely that “Our watches were not changed (RCOI)” — Wallace’s 12:05 is approximately = 10:45 local time, within 15 minutes of McDougall’s recalled 11:00. Cf. Friedman, recalled time is accurate within one hour excluding the possibility of chance in Memory & Cognition 15.6 (1987): 518-20. 

12:12: Custer-Reno battalions left the divide halt to descend to Reno Creek. Captain Frederick Benteen‘s battalion left the divide halt on an off-trail scout to the left. It is unlikely that all three columns actually set off at precisely the same time but the impact is only a few minutes. 

12:32: The pack train left the divide halt on Custer’s trail. 

1:20: Benteen’s battalion arrived at upper No-Name Creek and turned down it. On a high ridge ahead, 1st Lieutenant Francis Gibson (left) found the Little Bighorn valley empty. Many years later Lt. Gibson expressed doubt that he had actually viewed the correct valley (see interview with Camp).

2:00: Custer-Reno battalions passed No-Name Creek. Reno was called to the right bank.  Sergeant Daniel Kanipe and 1st Sergeant John Ryan, as well as Reno, say Reno was called to the right bank near the Lone Tepee. This subtracts a mile from Gray’s itinerary. 

2:15: Custer-Reno battalions passed the lone tepee. Custer’s battalion left down the right bank of Reno Creek. The scouts reported Sioux in the Little Bighorn Valley. Custer ordered Reno to lead out at a trot. 

2:17: Boston Custer trots ahead of the pack train to overtake Custer. 

2:32: Benteen’s battalion arrived at Reno Creek, 1/4 mile above the mouth of No-Name Creek. They saw the pack train 3/4 mile above. Boston Custer joins them. Benteen (The Custer Myth, p. 180) recalled being at the morass at 1:00 p.m., Godfrey thought 2:00. Assuming Hutchins/Knipe are right about the location of the morass, it is near the mouth of the South Fork. 

2:37: Benteen’s battalion reached the morass to water the horses. Boston Custer trotted on. 

2:43: Custer’s battalion trotted to the flat right behind Reno. The scouts reported the Sioux were alarming the village. Reno was ordered to charge taking Adjutant William W. Cooke (left). Custer sent two scouts to the bluff who joined Reno. 

2:45: Boston Custer passed the lone tepee. 

2:47: At the North Fork, Reno’s battalion crossed to the left bank of Reno Creek.

2:51: Custer’s battalion made a fast walk to the North Fork and halted to water. 

2:53: Reno’s battalion crossed to the left bank of the Little Bighorn River at Ford A where it halted to water the horses and reform. The troops and the scouts saw the Sioux attacking.

2:55: Cooke left to report to Custer. 

2:57: Benteen’s battalion departed the morass as the packtrain arrived. The packtrain halted to water and close up. 

3:01: Cooke reported the Sioux were attacking Reno. Custer’s battalion started down the right bank of the Little Bighorn River, leaving the north fork of Reno Creek. 

3:03: Reno’s battalion left Ford A and started its charge down the left bank of the Little Bighorn River. If Reno crossed Reno Creek near the Lone tepee at 2:00 according to Wallace’s watch, he was about 3-3.5 miles from Ford A. The column proceeded at a trot or “slow gallop” for 15 minutes, again according to Wallace. This would cover about 2 miles at 7.5-8 mph. Wallace said Reno was ordered to attack about 2:15. He took the gallop and covered the remaining mile to the river in about 5 minutes (gallop 9-11 mph in Upton, 1 mile in 6 minutes according to Cooke), and crossed at Ford A at 2:20 in Wallace’s recollection. Using Anders’/Graham’s 1 hour 20 minute difference between local time and official Headquarters time, then Reno crossed Ford A near 1:00, consistent with recollections of Interpreter Frederick Girard, Acting Assistant Surgeon Henry Porter, Kanipe, and Taylor. Gray added 43 minutes and at least two miles between Reno’s crossing of the creek and fording the Little Bighorn.

3:05: Reno’s battalion saw Custer or the scouts on the right bank bluff. 

3:10: Pony captors leave the Reno charge to capture Sioux herd. 2nd Lieutenant Luther Hare (left) (Custer in ’76, p. 65) said he and the Rees rode down the valley while Reno was watering the horses (i.e., crossing river?) and the Rees took off from him about a mile down river. Private William Jackson (William Jackson, William Jackson, Indian Scout: His True Story Told by His Friend,, p.135) said scouts rode out ahead of Reno and turned straight down valley. 

3:12: Benteen’s battalion walked past the lone tepee. 

3:13: Reno’s battalion saw Custer’s battalion at Reno Hill. Custer’s battalion saw Reno charge the village. 

3:15: Sgt. Daniel Kanipe left for Capt. Frederick Benteen and the pack train.

3:17: The pack train left the morass. 

3:18: Reno’s battalion halted and formed a skirmish line. They saw Custer’s battalion on the bluffs, disappearing. Custer’s battalion passed Sharpshooter Ridge and entered Cedar Coulee. Reno’s attack/formation of skirmish line occurred about midday, probably 1:00 pm. 

3:20: Little Sioux (Ree), Strikes Two (Ree), Red Star (Ree), Boy Chief (Ree), One Feather (Ree), Bull Stands in Water (Ree), and Whole Buffalo (Sioux) diverged from Reno’s charge and drove captured Sioux ponies up the bluff. They were joined there by seven stragglers who lagged behind on Custer’s trail and never crossed the Little Bighorn: Soldier (Ree), Stabbed (Ree), Bull (Ree), White Eagle (Ree), Red Wolf (Ree), Strikes the Lodge (Ree), and Charging Bull (Ree). If they left the column at 3:10 (above), how could they diverge from Reno’s charge at 3:20? 

3:23: Custer’s battalion arrived at the bend of Cedar Coulee and halted. 

3:24: Custer, his officers, Guide Mitch Bouyer (left) and Curley left the bend on a side trip to Weir Peak. 

3:26: Three Crows left the halted command at the bend of Cedar Coulee (off-trail). Goes Ahead (The Teepee Book, 2.6, June 1916, p.604) says scouts were told to make their escape at the trenches of the Reno-Benteen site. 

3:28: Custer’s party arrived at Weir Peak and saw the village and Reno skirmishing. 

3:28.5: The three Crows halted on the bluff above Weir Peak. 

3:30: 1st Lieutenant Charles DeRudio (left) saw Custer’s party at Weir Point. Custer’s party saw the concealed route to Ford B and the village. Not possible to identify individual and/or clothing on Weir from valley position. Who DeRedio saw remains open to question. 

3:31: Custer and officers left Weir Peak to return to the command. The Arikara were fired on by the last of Custer’s column as it was disappearing over Weir (on the eastern edge), crossed Kanipe’s route, encountered stragglers left behind Custer’s column. Custer in ’76, 180-1; Arikara Narrative of Custer’s Campaign and the Battle of the Little Bighorn, 115-6. 

3:32: The pack train passed the lone tepee. 

3:32.5: Boston Custer passed Reno Hill. The Reno fight would have been visible for the next five minutes. 

3:33: Reno withdrew the battalion into the timber. The three Crows saw Reno’s skirmish, fired at the Sioux, and left. 

3:34: Custer returned to the halt at the bend from Weir Peak. Trumpeter John Martin (left) left Custer’s battalion at the bend of Cedar Coulee for Benteen. Custer started down Cedar Coulee. 

3:36: Pony captors overtook and passed Sergeant Kanipe. 

3:38: John Martin met Boston Custer at the head of Cedar Coulee. 

3:39: The three Crows halted, had a drink in the Little Bighorn River, and captured five ponies. 

3:40: John Martin saw Reno’s battalion fighting in the timber. 

3:40:5: Benteen’s battalion met the Rees driving the Sioux ponies. 

3:42: Sergeant Daniel Kanipe met Benteen’s battalion with a verbal message from Custer. 

3:45: Little Sioux (Ree), Strikes Two (Ree), Red Star (Ree), Boy Chief (Ree), One Feather (Ree), Bull Stands in Water (Ree), Whole Buffalo (Sioux), Soldier (Ree), Stabbed (Ree), Bull (Ree), White Eagle (Ree), Red Wolf (Ree), Strikes the Lodge (Ree), and Charging Bull (Ree) drove the herd of Sioux ponies back to the packtrain and halted. Pretty Face (Ree) was with the packs until this time. 

3:46.5: Custer’s battalion halted at the mouth of Cedar Coulee. 

3:48: The pack train met Kanipe who had Custer’s message. 

3:49: Boston Custer overtakes Custer’s battalion at the mouth of Cedar Coulee with news. The three Crows continued upriver. 

3:52: Black Fox (Ree) (left) was at the bluffs and joined the three Crows who were given a Sioux pony. 

3:53: Reno ‘s battalion began its retreat upstream. Girard (RCOI) puts this about 2:00. His watch, giving timing of sunrise near 4:00 a.m. local time and full dark at 9:00 p.m., reflects local time fairly closely. Additionally, Girard’s watch times closely match the captured Rosebud watch timing the entire fight from skirmish line to the surround on Reno Hill from 1-4. It is, per Hardorff, extremely unlikely that Crook, who was headquartered in Omaha, would have set his command watches to San Francisco time. Headquarters is where the general is, and the general had been in the field (Douglas, Wyoming, approximates headquarters) for more than a year. Headquarters time is what the general says it is–why set watches an hour and a half off daybreak, noon? 

3:55: Rees switched to fresh Sioux ponies and started back to Reno. Custer’s battalion saw signals by Mitch Boyer and Curley on Weir Ridge. 

3:56.5: Custer’s battalion started down Medicine Tail Coulee. 

3:58: Benteen’s battalion met Trumpeter John Martin at the flat where they heard firing. The three Crows passed Reno Hill and saw Reno’s retreat. 

4:00: Reno’s battalion retreats across the Little Bighorn River. Bobtail Bull (Ree) and Little Brave (Ree) (left) had been killed on the east bank by this time. 

4:02: Benteen’s battalion took Custer’s trail at the North Fork. 

4:04: Custer’s battalion halted in Medicine Tail Coulee where Boyer and Curley joined them. 

4:04:5: The packtrain was overtaken by the Rees who were returning to Reno Hill. 

4:05: Young Hawk’s party was trapped on the east bank bottom by the Sioux and fought. Scout George Herendeen‘s party scrambled back to the timber from the retreat. 

4:06: Benteen’s battalion saw Reno’s retreat at the knoll and halted. 

4:08: Captain George Yates‘ battalion (Companies F and E, off-trail) left the separation halt down Medicine Tail Coulee. Custer’s battalion (Companies C, I, and L) left the separation halt north out of Medicine Tail Coulee. 

4:10: Benteen’s battalion met three Crows and one Ree and left the halt. Reno’s battalion climbed the bluffs obliquely to Reno Hill. Private William Baker (1/2 Ree), Private William Cross (Ree, 1/2 Sioux), Red Bear (Ree horse herder), White Cloud (Sioux rear guard), Ma-tok-sha (Sioux), and Caroo (Sioux) arrived at Reno Hill. Red Bear and White Cloud left to join the pony captors. Herendeen’s party met 12 troopers who had been left in the timber. 

4:15: Red Bear and White Cloud met three Crows and Black Fox and halted to await the return of the Crows. 

4:16: Custer’s battalion arrived on Luce Ridge and halted on the defensive position. 

4:18: Yates’ battalion arrived at Ford B. Light firing over the Little Bighorn began. Custer’s battalion saw and heard the firing. 

4:20: Benteen’s battalion reached Reno Hill and joined Reno’s battalion. Three Crows and Black Fox arrived. The three Crows left to go downstream, passing Reno Hill, to find Reno’s two Crows. Custer’s battalion saw the Sioux coming up Medicine Tail Coulee to attack. (MF, I think the Gray time of 4.20 for Benteen on Reno Hill is completely wrong and the time to be used is either 2:30 p.m. as per the Official Army Report or 3:45 p.m., which was Wallace’s headquarters time estimate based on his testimony at RCOI which he miscalculated as being 4:00 p.m. Gray’s understanding of the time of events by this stage is so wrong that it is not really possible to comment further. There is no primary source evidence to support Gray’s 4:20 p.m. for this meeting.) 

4:23: Yates’ battalion crossed Deep Coulee and arrived on the cutbank unopposed. Custer’s battalion saw Yates start up the west rim of Deep Coulee. 

4:25: Red Bear and White Cloud left for Reno Hill when the Crows failed to return. Custer’s battalion pinned down the Sioux with heaving firing. Young Hawk‘s party and Herendeen’s party heard heavy Custer firing downstream. Reno left in search of 2nd Lieutenant Benjamin Hodgson‘s body.

4:27: The pack train halted at the flat to close up. 1st Lieutenant Edward Mathey sighted smoke. Custer’s battalion left Luce Ridge to meet Yates downstream. 

4:30: Black Fox arrived at Reno Hill. Red Bear and White Cloud arrived for the second time. Young Hawk’s party and Herendeen’s party saw the Sioux leave the upper valley. The three Crows arrived at Sharpshooter Hill and heard Custer’s battalion firing. 

4:32: Little Sioux, Strikes Two, Red Star, Boy Chief, One Feather, Bull Stands in Water, Whole Buffalo, Soldier, Stabbed, Bull, White Eagle, Red Wolf, Strikes the Lodge, Charging Bull, and Pretty Face returned to Reno Hill with the ponies from the lone tepee and were greeted by Red Bear and White Cloud. Custer’s battalion arrived at Nye-Cartwright Ridge. 

4:33: Yates’ battalion ascended the west rim of Deep Coulee. The Sioux attacked its flanks. 

4:38: Custer’s battalion fired at the Sioux on their left flank while negotiating a crossing of upper Deep Coulee. 

4:40: Three Crows arrived at Reno Hill, reporting to Red Star that two Crows were killed.

4:45: Young Hawk’s party left for Reno Hill. Three Crows left for their home village. 

4:46: Yates’ battalion fought on foot to the reunion point. Custer’s battalion joined Yates. 

4:47: The packtrain left the flat and saw the troops on Reno Hill. 

4:50: Reno returned from his search for Hodgson and talked with 2nd Lieutenant Charles Varnum. Curley left Custer’s battalion for the mouth of the Bighorn. 

4:52: Reno dispatches 2nd Lieutenant Luther Hare to speed up the ammunition mules. 

4:55: The sound of Custer’s volleys prompted Captain Thomas B. Weir (left) to ask to move downstream. 

4:57: The packtrain was at the North Fork and took Custer’s trail.

To be continued. . . .